Turkmenistan became independent with the breakup of the Soviet union in 1991. A traditionally Muslim land, Turkmenistan received Eastern Orthodox Christianity over the century of Russian rule.
   Protestantism entered Turkmenistan in the 1890s. A Baptist, I. K. Savl'ev, and a Mennonite, F S. Ovsyannikov, moved from Russia to Ashkhabad, the Turkmen capital. They founded the new village of Kuropatkinsky nearby and built the first Baptist church. After several decades of peaceful existence, the small church was targeted by Soviet officials in the 1930s. The movement survived, however, and experienced a small revival in the 1990s, though there are only three congregations. They have been joined by Adven-tists and Pentecostals, who enjoyed a brief period of growth in the mid-1990s.
   Through the 1990s, the government had shown itself hostile to all religious groups apart from Islam and Russian Orthodoxy In 1996, it passed a law requiring religious communities to have 500 members before they could apply for registration, but officials have been reluctant to allow Protestant groups of whatever size to register. Protestants have been subject to discrimination and even persecution. Their meeting houses have been vandalized, and a few, such as the Adventist church in Asigabad, destroyed. Private homes used for worship have been confiscated and individual Protestants have been fined, imprisoned, beaten, and deported for continuing to practice their faith. In 1999, Shageldy Atakov, a Baptist pastor, was sentenced to four years in jail.
   Various U.S. government agencies have warned of a deteriorating situation for religious liberties and have urged Congress to apply sanctions.
   See also Central Asia.
   Further reading:
   ■ David Barrett, The Encyclopedia of World Christianity, 2nd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001)
   ■ Patrick Johnstone and Jason Mandryk, Operation World, 21st Century Edition (Carlisle, Cumbria, U.K.: Paternoster, 2001)
   ■ Albert W. Wardin, ed. Baptists Around the World (Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1995).

Encyclopedia of Protestantism. . 2005.

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  • Turkmenistan — Turkmenistan …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Türkmenistan — Jumhuriyäti Republik Turkmenistan …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Turkménistan — Türkmenistan (tk) Туркмения (ru) Turkménistan …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Turkmenistan — Turkménistan Türkmenistan (tk) Туркмения (ru) Turkménistan …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Türkmenistan — Turkménistan Türkmenistan (tk) Туркмения (ru) Turkménistan …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Turkmenistán — Turkmenistán, es un país en Asia Central, una de las repúblicas constituyentes de la Unión Soviética hasta su disolución en 1991. Comparte fronteras con Afganistán, Iran, Kazajstán y Uzbekistán. Posee salida hacia el Mar Caspio. * * *… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Türkmenistan — Тип Общественно политическая Главный редактор Аманмухаммет Репов[1] Основана 1920 Язык туркменский Главный офис …   Википедия

  • Turkménistan — état d Asie centrale, qui s étend d E. en O., de la mer Caspienne à l Amou Daria, et de l Ouzbékistan et du Kazakhstan au N., à l Iran et à l Afghanistan au S.; 488 100 km²; 3 807 000 hab. (Turkmènes 70 %, Russes 9,5 %, Ouzbeks 8,5 %); cap.… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Turkmenistán — Forma adaptada a la ortografía y pronunciación españolas del nombre de este país de Asia, antigua república soviética: «Ayer [...] hubo en Turkmenistán un sismo de magnitud 7,4» (Nacional [Ven.] 6.2.97). Se desaconseja el uso de la forma… …   Diccionario panhispánico de dudas

  • Turkmenistan — [tərk men′i stan΄, tərk men′istän΄] 1. TURKMEN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC 2. country in central Asia, on the Caspian Sea, north of Iran: became independent upon the breakup of the U.S.S.R. (1991): 186,400 sq mi (482,774 sq km); pop. 3,523,000; cap …   English World dictionary

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